Maqalat Al Islamiyyin Pdf Download
His famous book al-Maqalat al-Islamiyyin, which contains almost all the views of the Ash’ari on the basic principles of the four schools of Muslims — Mu’tazilite, Ash’arite, Sha’afi’i, and Hanafi — is considered to be one of the most famous works of this school.
The Shia school considered his main works as al Shura and al Majmu’a and a little later as al Qanun and al Shara’ alMuhaddarat. Maqalat alShara’ al-Muhaddarat is a detailed exposé of the Islamic jurisprudence and the commentary on al-Tafsir.
His other major work is al-Maqalat al-Islamiyyin, which contains in detail a total of nine hundred and twenty six questions and answers on the basic principles of the four schools of Islam.
The Ash’arite conception of God is in contrast to the Gnostic ideas of the philosophers like Plato, Plotinus and Iamblichos who taught that God was a pure mind, the highest form of that self or being which was beyond all human being.The conception of God’s essence as a pure mind is also alien to the Buddhist, Hindu and some other philosophy. All these philosophers had a different view of God. AlAsh’ari’s view is entirely different from the Philosophers.According to al-Ash’ari, God is an active or efficient being just like human beings or nafs. His attributes are disclosed in the Quran,the Sunna, or even better through the Ijma of the Imams like the Quranic verses,Ibn Abi Zain’s statement,Imam al-Ghazzali’s statement and the definition of alIbn Hazm are all Ijma.For alAsh’ari, God is truly active in the same way human beings are active and not a pure mind. The point is that human beings are active in the manaqib (cognitive faculties), whereas the pure mind is active in the mana’l-balah (willful faculties). The active being has all other attributes and every attribute is also an aspect of God’s essence. AlFakhr al-Razi on the other hand said that:God is pure, and also comprehensive. He is form, and also an essence [jawhar]. He is an aspect of everything, and also in everything.(Ibn alQayyim in Ihya 12.5)
Maqalat Al Islamiyyin Pdf Download
This article discusses the second principle of the Ash’arites. This is their position on the attributes of God and the manner of their expounding.
The alMaqalat alIsIamiyyin was printed at Istanbul in 1348/1929; it was reprinted in 1371/1948 (in 1395/1960 the same book was published in Malaysia and it was supposed to have been reprinted in 1395/1960 in Turkey). This book contains the alMaqalat alIsIamiyyin, the Risalah fi Istihsan alKhaud fi alKalam and Risalah fi Istihsan alKhaud fi alLuma, and the treatise Kitab alSharh walTafsil.
3.The unity of God. AlAshari stated that Allah is one. He cannot be like a body which is manifested in the world. When people say that Allah is one, they mean that one of His names is different from the other names, and it is said that Allah’s other names are the attributes of his nature. However, in reality the name of God means his knowledge and attributes. AlAshari’s Maqalat alIslamiyyin states that God is one and that there is no relation between the name of God and His attributes.
1. Khilafat wa Yati’yat: The Ash’arites believed in the infallibility of the Imams. But they differed from the Mu’tazilites in their view of divine conveyance of Imam’s knowledge and other similar issues. They believed that even in the absence of any Imam, the Holy Prophet (SAW) would have communicated his wisdom to his rightly guided Caliphs. All these communications should be followed by other Imams who were his following and their knowledge and sayings should be the consensus of the community. Any deviation from such truths would lead to punishment. The Mu’tazilites, on the other hand, said that Imam does not have human wisdom, rather there is no one else in the world who is infallible except the Holy Prophet (SAW) and his rightly guided Caliphs. This view is termed Khilafat (its acceptance is a proof of faith) in the Maqalat al Islamiyyin.