Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria are small living things that can be found almost everywhere. They live on the ground, in oceans, in the food that we eat and even in our bodies. They have been on earth long before there were any other organisms. Bacteria are so small you can only see them with the help of a microscope. They have only one cell and very simple structures.

Bacteria have outer cell walls that protect the inside. A cell membrane is inside the cell wall. It prevents harmful substances from getting in and out. Inside the membrane is a soft, jelly-like substance called the cytoplasm. It has chemicals that help build the parts of a cell and break down food. Within it is the nucleoid, which contains the DNA. It controls a cell’s growth and other activities

Bacteria appear in different shapes. Spherical bacteria are round or ball-like. Rod-shaped bacteria live in your intestine and form chains. Spiral-shaped bacteria have a twisted form.
Bacteria absorb nutrients and remove waste through their cell walls. They reproduce by splitting themselves in the middle. The two new cells can then split into four cells and so on. In a short time, a single bacteria can reproduce billions of times.

Some bacteria can get inside the human body, reproduce and cause an infection. These harmful bacteria are called pathogens. Our immune system is in charge of fighting off these bacteria. However, sometimes we need a vaccine to help fight off these intruders. Vaccines are weak or dead forms of the bacteria itself. Such a substance helps our body fight off bacteria in the future. Some examples of illnesses caused by bacterial infections are tuberculosis or pneumonia.

The best way to protect yourself from bacteria is to keep yourself clean and wash your hands. Because bacteria may be transported by air, we should cover our nose and mouth when we sneeze. Vitamins also help strengthen our immune system and fight off bacteria.

Bacteria can be helpful to the human body as well. They live in our stomach and help us digest food. Other bacteria create cheese and yoghurt. Bacteria are at work in the soil and decompose dead plants and animals.

Smoking in the morning

Smoking in the morning, especially accompanied by a cup of coffee, has become a ritual that hard to break. However, these habits seem to need to be stopped from smoking at the beginning of the day is more dangerous than smoking on the day or night.

Research shows that smoking after waking up would increase the risk of lung cancer, neck and head. “Morning smokers have high levels of nicotine and other toxins from tobacco in his body. They are also more addicted than smokers who refrained from smoking a half hour or so after waking up,” said researcher Joshua Muscat of Penn State College of Medicine.

To find out why some smokers get cancer and not, Muscat and his team examined the link between cancer risk is there with the habit of first cigarette in the morning.

The first study involved 4775 patients with lung cancer and 2835 of other smokers without lung cancer. Those who smoke 30 minutes after waking up 1.79 times higher risk of suffering from lung cancer than those who waited more than 60 minutes. Meanwhile, those who smoked 31-60 minutes after waking up had 1.31 times the risk compared to those who wait at least an hour.

The second study involved 1055 people with brain and neck cancer and 795 people who smoked but did not suffer brain and neck cancer. Those who smoked within 30 minutes when you wake up 1.59 times the risk of brain and neck cancer compared with those who waited an hour.

The risk of smokers who smoked 31-60 minutes after waking up 1.42 times than those who wait at least an hour.